Sunday, December 15, 2019

Media Free Essays

In this book, we examine the history and business of mass media, and discuss the media as a central force In shaping our culture and our democracy. A. Critical process for Investigating media industries and Issues. We will write a custom essay sample on Media or any similar topic only for you Order Now L. Address key Ideas Including communication, culture, mass media, and mass communication. N. Investigating important periods In communication history: the oral, Whiten, print, electric, and digital eras. Ill. Examine the development of a mass medium from emergence to convergence. Lb. Learn about how convergence has changed our relationship to media v. Look at the central role of storytelling in media and culture. . Discuss two models for organizing and categorizing culture: a skyscraper and a map. Evil. Trace important cultural values in both the modern and postmodern societies. Viii. Study media literacy and the five stages of the critical process: description, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, and engagement. Often, culture is narrowly associated with art, the unique forms of creative expression that give pleasure and set standards about what Is true, good, and beautiful. (Can be viewed more broadly as the ways In which people live and represent themselves at particular histo rical time. Communication: the creation and use of symbol systems that convey Information and meaning (e. G. Languages, more code, motion pictures, and one-zero binary computer codes). A. Culture, therefore, Is a process that delivers the values of society through products or other meaning making forms. B. Culture inks individuals to their society by providing both shared and contested values and the mass media help circulate those values. There eras, which all still operate to some degree, are oral, written, print, electronic, digital. A. The mass media are the culture industries-the channels f communication-that produce and distribute songs, novels, TV shows, newspaper, movies, video games, internet services, and other cultural products to large numbers of people. Mass communication: the process of designing cultural messages and stories and delivering them to large and diverse audiences through media channels as old and distinctive as the printed book and as converged as the internet. A. Hastened by the growth of Industry and modern technology, mass communication accompanied the shift or rural populations to urban settings and the rise of a consumer culture. In digital communication, images, texts, and sounds are converted onto electronic signals( represented as varied combinations of binary number-ones and zeroes) that are then reassembled( decoded) as a precise reproduction of, say, a TV picture, a magazine article, a song, or a telephone voice. Sender (authors, producers, and organizations) transmit messages (programs, texts, images, sounds, and ads) through a mass media channel (newspapers, books, magazines, radio, television, or the internet) to large groups of receivers. . In process, gatekeeper function as message filters. Media gatekeeper make decisions about what messages actually get produced for particular receivers. I. The process also allows for dieback, In which citizens and consumers, If they choose, return messages to senders or gatekeepers through letters to the editor, phone calls, email, we postings, or talk shows. Elective exposure: people typically seek messages and produce meanings that correspond to their own cultu ral beliefs, values, and interests. Tag in the development of media-convergence- a term that media critic and analysts use when describing all the changes that have occurred over the past decade, and are still occurring, in media content and within media companies. Medium: an intervening substance through which something is conveyed or reanimated. Media innovations typically go through four stages. A. Emergence, or novelty, stage. I. Inventors and technicians try to solve a particular problem, such as making pictures move, transmitting messages form ship to shore, or sending mail electronically. . Entrepreneurial stage I. Inventors and investors determine a practical and marketable use for the new device. C. Mass medium stage I. Businesses figure out how to market the new device or medium as a consumer product. D. Convergence stage I. Older media are reconfigured in various forms on newer media. Convergence: a ERM that media critics and analysts use when describing all the changes t hat have occurred over the past decade, and are still occurring, in media content and within media companies. A. The first definition of media convergence involves the technological merging of content across different media channels. B. Cross platform: describes a business model that involves consolidating various media holdings, such as cable connections, phone services, television transmissions, and internet access, under one corporate umbrella. Our varied media institutions and outlets are basically in the narrative-or storytelling business. Media stories put events in context, helping us to better understand both daily lives and the larger world. Culture as a hierarchy, represented by a skyscraper model, and culture as a process, represented by a map model. Skyscraper High culture Good taste, high education, and supported by wealthy patrons and corporate donors, is associated with fine art, which is available primarily in libraries, theaters, and museums. Low culture Which is aligned with the questionable tastes of the masses, which enjoy the commercial Junk circulated by the mass media, su ch as reality TV, celebrity gossip Web sites, and violent action films. How to cite Media, Papers Media Free Essays string(61) " would be the League of Nations would be shown to audiences\." The 1920’s in America was a time of unprecedented growth and cultural expansion, up to that time, than ever before. America had come back from Europe victorious in the Great War and the great cities like Chicago and New York, along with the rest of the country, was now a creditor nation. This growth helped to spark the second industrial revolution in which consumerism helped to drive the needs and wants of its people. We will write a custom essay sample on Media or any similar topic only for you Order Now More and more inventions which the modern American takes for granted started to flood into the culture at this time. This increase in consumerism was spurred on by the gains which technology helped to make possible. The 1920’s was a very important year for the media in this country and which served as not only one of the most interesting but important decades for this medium of American culture. Television was invented in this decade but would not be introduced on a national level until the 1939 World Fair and that was only a demonstration. People got their news through the newsreels at the movies, radio, for the few people that had then but mostly through newspapers. The latter was the most important and influential medium for Americans to receive their news. In New York City, there were seventeen daily newspapers with some turning out more than one edition a day. Eventually, the influence of the radio and television would come onto the national scene and usurp the influence that those mediums had on the 1920’s but with most mediums which have such an important and resounding influence on the nation and its culture, it had to have a beginning and for radio and motion pictures which portrayed the news, the 1920’s contributed a great deal to the formation and growth of these. The 1920’s was one of the most important years for popular culture in this country’s history. Some would say that the terms â€Å"pop culture† and â€Å"important† being used in the same sentence would be an oxymoron and usually, I would not be in total disagreement with them. However, the 1920’s ushered in a greater understanding of the country which was on the move and sought a higher standard of living then ever before. This newer sense of worldly capitalism came from technology and much of that was within the media. The 1930’s and the 1940’s would eclipse the 1920’s in its dependence upon the radio.   However, its importance at this time cannot be overlooked. In moving the consumerism that would help to define the decade, the radio was able to reach the masses in a way that was unthinkable just a decade before. One example was a simple advertisement in New York City for apartments in one of its Burroughs. This single thirty second advertisement spot created a rush of phone calls to the realtor in charge of the properties that the main phone server was shut down. Over $150,000 of apartments were bought in a single day and to adjust for inflation that number would be just short of $2 million.[1] It has been proven that people respond more to what they hear and see than what they hear. This is why most people today read very little compared to what their parents or grandparents did in their youth.   Seeing the news was simply more entertaining and enticing for the majority of people. The radio exploited that truth and as a result, became the central item in a person’s house as well as in their life as a main source for their news. The first presidential election was broadcasted over Pittsburgh’s KDKA in 1920.[2] People, for the first time, could hear in almost real time, the debates and election results as they first came over the wire. This helped to spur an interest in politics and world events which before, people could successfully avoid had they not felt interested in what was occurring outside of their immediate sphere of influence. â€Å"The radio helped to create a global society for Americans who would never, could never travel to the various places which radio brought to their living rooms.†[3] This served as its major appeal. The radio also served as free advertisements for the major sports of the day. It was first protested by the baseball owners who felt that radio was stealing their product and those who could listen on the radio, would be less compelled to come to the ballpark. This seems like common sense, but in reality, the exact opposite happened. Being reminded of the ballgame and in listening to the daily actions of their favorite team, spurred a heightened interest which could only be quelled by visiting the ballpark for oneself. As a partial result, along with the heroics of Babe Ruth and other famous athletes, the sports enjoyed a golden era in sports. â€Å"Jack Dempsey vs. Gene Tunney in boxing, the Four Horsemen of Notre Dame in Football, horse racing and the further cementing of baseball as the nation’s past time, all occurred in the 1920’s because of the advances in technology; especially in the media.†[4] Another form of the media which came to take hold in the 1920’s was the newsreels. The inventor of television is still under dispute but what is not under dispute is that even though the majority of advancements in television occurred in the 1920’s, television was non existent in American homes. The closest thing to come to television was the newsreels which occurred before, in between and after the movies at the local cinema. Each one was only a few minutes in length and before 1927, were all without sound. A newsreel in the 1920’s would bring scenes of the New York Yankees winning another championship or Notre Dame running to another undefeated season. It would also bring the events of the world and Presidents Harding and Coolidge. The death of President Wilson and the beginning of the slow death which would be the League of Nations would be shown to audiences. You read "Media" in category "Essay examples" The Teapot Dome scandal helped to infuriate a nation over the corruption of their government as well as Charles Lindbergh flight from New York to Paris in 1927.[5] People could actually see Lindbergh leaving New York and arriving in Paris instead of just reading it. This produced a highly electric feeling; a feeling which made Lindbergh the most famous non athlete of the 1920’s in America. In Chicago, the Loeb and Leopold case would have been broadcasted to a shocked Chicago as well as the rest of the nation. Two very smart and over privileged boys sought to commit the prefect crime by killing a fourteen year old boy who was picked at random. That case and the 1925 Scopes Trial in Tennessee which put evolution on trial were two events in the judicial system which would command the attention of the American public in ways that the newspaper never could. The most important form of the media was the newspaper during the 1920’s. The newspaper served as an affordable form of news and which served as the rough draft of history. Despite many newspapers being heavily influenced by one political party over another, historians look to newspapers and other primary written sources more than the various elements of popular culture when trying to interpret an era in our nation’s history. Two of the most important newspapers of that time were the New York Times and Chicago Tribune. In the eighty years since the 1920’s, the subscription of the Chicago Tribune has actually decreased from 920,000 to a little more than 620,000 in 2006.[6] This truth, despite the fact that there are roughly 180 million more Americans in the country and Chicago land, which currently totals more than 5.5 million people, helps to explain the rapid decline in the power and influence which newspapers had from then until now.[7] Also, most of the major newspapers had more than one edition per day. The Chicago Tribune would have a morning edition and then a later afternoon edition that same day with a comparable circulation. The price of the newspaper at that time was 2 cents in the city and up to 3 cents in the suburbs. Therefore, it was a cheap form of receiving the news and one which was readily available throughout the city and suburbs.   The newspaper would be divided into sections: World and Sports with other sections inverted into those sections. The events of the world and important political actions would be seen on the front of the page with editorials towards the end of the World section. Box scores and â€Å"In the Wake of the News† would help its readers to follow the actions of their favorite team.   Local sports were also very important as was seen when 109,000 people showed up at Soldiers Field in Chicago to watch the city’s high school championship football game. Another important aspect of the newspaper was the advertisements within its pages.   The largest section would be reserved for the Saturday and Sunday papers. Despite its crude pictures compared to today’s standards, seeing a model wearing the largest fashions were even more influential than the fashion magazines of its day. This helped to promote the consumerism that was so easily identifiable with the 1920’s. People need to be reminded of what will make their lives better, regardless of how little that item is actually needed. This was the job of the major clothing companies and department stores of the day and they looked to the newspapers as the number one form of advertisement for their business. One store owner stated: â€Å"The secret is not how to supply the goods but how to supply the customers by making them want what we have to sell.† This is one of the most daunting problems which face advertisers: How to create demand for the products which a producer has to sell and which usually is not essential for the customer to have. By creating an illusion in the customer’s mind which tells him or her that such an item is essential to their continued happiness; the store that can do that, will never have to worry about producing the customers and with the mass production of their products through the modern inventions of various machines, producing the goods was neither a problem as well. At that time, they were the most important form of advertisement for the major companies in America and the store owners who took advantage of this influential medium, enjoyed high returns on their investments. The media is important in this country, not just to tell us what our nation’s movie starts up to but they serve as the first draft of history. Historians, when attempting to fully appreciate the era which they study, refer to scholarly sources but it is the primary source which is usually seen as the Holy Grail. The media in all of its various forms helps the historian as well as the interested in knowing what the society at that time felt was important and was of an interest to the country at that time. The use of the radio, newsreels and newspaper all served that purpose and help to give future generations a closer look at what motivated the country as a whole and how the media helped to motivate the shape the country as well. The stuffy of the media, in all of its forms and in the years since Thomas Paine’s Common Sense in 1776 sought to convince the rest of the colonists that the choice before them was as simple yet profound as liberty or death. In much of the same way, though not always as dramatic, the mass production of sounds, words, images and ideas, which are spread across the country and even the world; it has been the media, although not always unbiased, which has helped to bring America into the information age. As the radio and newsreels were to this generation, the Internet is to Americans of this era. Despite its major differences, they both have a lot alike and show that the more things change, the more they really do stay the same. The method of transporting information might have improved but it still affects the way people think, feel and even vote. WORKS CITED Burns, Ric   The History of New York Episode 6. Los Angeles: Time Warner 1999 Paine, Thomas Common Sense New York: WW Norton   1948 Mead, Joan The History of the Media in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1987 Front page of the Chicago Tribune   October 10, 1925 Front Page of the New York Times   June 15, 1927 Top 10 American Newspapers http://www.newspapers.com/top10.html Downloaded July 10, 2007 [1] Burns, Ric   The History of New York Episode 6. Los Angeles: Time Warner 1999 [2] Burns, Ric   The History of New York Episode 6. Los Angeles: Time Warner 1999 [3] Mead, Joan The History of the Media in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1987 pg. 18 [4] Mead, Joan The History of the Media in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1987 pg. 22 [5] Burns, Ric   The History of New York Episode 6. Los Angeles: Time Warner 1999 [6] http://www.newspapers.com/top10.html [7] Mead, Joan The History of the Media in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1987 pg. 28    How to cite Media, Essay examples Media Free Essays In the United States, free expression is being practiced, especially in Media where privacy is not an issue anymore. Media people are open to talk about everything and everyone. After all, in the US system, free media is a reflection of free country and free people. We will write a custom essay sample on Media or any similar topic only for you Order Now In most nations, government takes big part in maintaining Media rules and policies. In the United States, they have Journalism Ethics that people working in Media industry must follow. These are taking full responsibility of everything that you write and broadcast to the people, and are some-what set rules in order to have fair and constructive news and information in the society. Journalism Ethics provide a process in checking all journalistic write-ups, news or any, even simple information without violating the freedom of expression by media people. Journalists in every place provide the public with awareness on important issues and knowledge on everything, especially on things that are essential to us. They play a vital role in everyday lives of the people and for this; they should be guided accordingly in order to have proper and fair distribution of information and responsible and constructive views for all. Media is a term used to people who gather, make and broadcast news and information to a very large audience. This serves as a relevant source of information and deeply affects public’s lifestyle and thinking. Centuries ago, media is already evident but people from the past didn’t have the term â€Å"media† yet. Not until the 1920’s where it was deliberately distributed, used, and practiced that the people came up with the term â€Å"Media.† This term is associated always to the dissemination of facts, opinions, and ideas through the use of newspapers, journals and magazines, television, radio, the web, books, and even cinema films. Its growth was fast that made it as one of the credible sources in receiving news and information. Media plays a huge role in our society. Nowadays, we always see people reading newspapers, watching television, or listening to radio to get news and information, not just inside the country but also all the things that are happening around the globe. Media has its purpose for the society and its people; these are to educate, to inform, and to simply entertain. We learn from all the information media is providing us. Education today depends on the advance reports of everything that is happening in every place all the time. Students, especially teachers gather information from media because all of us have this â€Å"trust† in media people on all the information that they supply. Also, media has its way to inform the public; these are through the use of newspapers, magazines, radio, and the most common and in demand of all, the television. We rely on these things very much because without the media providing the information, people will be detached not only from what is happening around the world, but also from the governance of our administration, law-makers and all the things that are essential in our society as a democratic country. Another thing is media plays a role of just simply entertaining the public. In all the problems that our society is facing today, all the tragedies, hazards and fear that we are experiencing, media finds a way to divert our attention to some other things and somehow relieves us and make us forget even for some time all the anxiety that we undergo these days. Media really help and educate us through the information that they provide. Without the media, perhaps our points of view on everything will be limited and our opinions inadequate. The flow of information that media is doing is very important and useful and we must realize how it helps us in our everyday lifestyle, and how it affects our culture, our beliefs, and our attitudes and behavior towards everything surrounding us. Freedom of the press in the United States before, especially during the 17th century, was not guided accordingly by rules of the government, thus resulting to media people being fined for libel or even sedition especially when the government finds their published opinions threatening or aggressive. The notion of â€Å"freedom of the press† started when John Peter Zenger was prosecuted for seditious libel in 1735. Eventually, Zenger was found not guilty in his case when his lawyer, Andrew Hamilton argued to the jury that there is nothing wrong in publishing the truth and telling the public about a reality that is really happening. When the American Revolution came, one of the essentials that Revolutionary leaders need to save and maintain is the Press Freedom, this was followed by the amendment of the United States Constitution stating the restriction of the congress from editing the freedom of the press that is also closely connected to freedom of speech. During this time, Thomas Jefferson was an important figure. He wanted the government to be transparent in providing security and opportunity for every citizen of the nation, especially the things that concerning the society and every individual’s concerns and needs. He believed that a press that is free and active will be effective in educating the public and maintaining transparent news and information for all. An active press will help in the dissemination of all relevant information concerning the government and the public. And for this to happen, Jefferson wants the press to be out of control of the government. He stated that a state or a government that is not open in receiving criticisms and cannot stand condemnation deserves to fall and be out of governance. He stood by the fact that press is one of the measurements of freedom thus it should be ruled by reason and truth. Truth; which is very important in every aspect of our lives and which we deserve more than anything else especially now that we are committed to democracy in our country. When somebody enters the world of media, the person should be guided by responsibilities in any information to be released. There are certain rules that any journalist or media individual must watch out for in order for them to be perceived as acting responsibly in what they do, some of these are unsubstantial or feathery write-ups, sensationalizing every detail of information, not recorded facts, and many more. Any journalist or press officer should be honest and fair in gathering and reporting incidents, cases or any event happening in the community and in the world. Any information should be surrounded by accurate details, objective opinions and points of view, and of course balanced and fair judgment. Press people should also be aware of not receiving any favor or gift from anyone especially if it will affect the information that the public deserve to know and be informed of. They must be also aware that in every fact, news, or information that they write, they should be accountable to their followers such as their readers if it is newspaper, listeners if it is radio and viewers from television, internet and other sources of information. Being a responsible journalist should also be making sure that their sources of information are dependable and trustworthy, and for this to happen, they should avoid anonymous sources and always cite sources properly. Media individuals should not also fabricate any information and detail of news even it is just a tiny detail of information. Responsible media individual should not cross the line up to the point where invasion of privacy has already become an issue. When criticizing someone, especially if it is a political figure, be sure to get his side and the chance to respond to the same story. And be sure to maintain the standards of the society or the community regarding obscenity or any pornographic information that will have a great effect to the public. Whenever a press officer states opinion, be also sure that fair comment rule is being followed to avoid being charged of libel. Community standards, as I have mentioned earlier vary in every situation and in every place. What I am going to discuss is one of the most important event happened in the world that the community set the standards in delivering news and coverage. This is the standards of the community when it comes to bringing news and information about the War. The society is greatly affected in any international coverage of different events especially when there is War occurrence around the globe. Just to set expectations, there are rules that media industry follows whenever covering an event, a tragedy or any complex issue that needs to be brought in the awareness of the public. One of these is the most common standard; always cite the sources where the journalist gathered the information. Also use different types of sources, do not just depend on one source, consider the views and opinions of other individuals especially if it will greatly affect the news and will send an important knowledge to the public. Investigate further about the issue just to clarify any information and to make the people aware of every detail. If it is War coverage, always provide the story of all sides, the different images, but also avoid sensationalizing the situation and just stick to what is essential to the public. And always provide post-incident report just to make sure that there will be a closure and finality in every story. Another issue when we talk about Media is the privacy. More often than not, privacy is really affected and invaded when media enters the scene. Since privacy is subjective, the government set regulations on how the privacy should look like just to protect every individual especially politicians and public figures. In this case, it is also perceive that the government is the main threat to the privacy of every individual because they control any information, and also they have surveillances and collection and sharing of public information. Because privacy issues are rapidly growing, there are now certain boundaries that the law established to protect all individuals especially public figures that are perceived to be public owned. The right to privacy was made into consideration in 1890’s when a lot of sensational stories, gossips, sexual scandals and even publication of obscene images became uncontrolled. Individuals became less private because media people have the freedom to invade personal lives. For example, if all of us can walk on the beach, sidewalks, or any public place, a journalist, a photographer, or any press officer can also do all of these things. The government implemented certain rules so that privacy cases will be minimized. The government set certain places that any press individual is not allowed to enter or go into. If there are special events that the public must know, government issues special media access for them to cover and make the public aware of the event. Only in the 1970’s when the government let the media roll their cameras and cover the discussion in the U.S. House of Representatives and only in 1986 when it permitted the media into the Senate chamber. In courtrooms, media is allowed to cover the proceedings just for the public to know that the justice system guarantees the right and fair trial, but still most of the federal courtrooms still not allow cameras inside. Another thing that the government made sure that privacy is protected is by issuing a search warrant whenever there are cases that a private home or place needs to be searched. Only people with this court-issued paper are allowed to enter premises and conduct search. These are just some of the so many privacy issues that media people is being held responsible especially to cases where they really disobey the law and totally invade private lives. At least, I can say that the government and its laws are there and being implemented to protect every individual’s right to be alone and be private. References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_media http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journalism_ethics_and_standards http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_the_press http://www.taje.org/fortaje/ppt/responsible.ppt http://www.mediamouse.org/griid/fcc-war-standards.php http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=1652 http://www.winning-newsmedia.com/privacy.htm How to cite Media, Essay examples Media Free Essays News media plays an important role in by providing information to the public about matters affecting their lives and the society in which they live. The news media also plays an important role in identifying nonmarket issues and stimulating action that affects their progress. The news media finds business of interest, and with stories instantly transmitted worldwide by the broadcast media and the Internet, a firm’s actions are in the eye of the media and under the scrutiny of interest groups, activists, and government. We will write a custom essay sample on Media or any similar topic only for you Order Now A fortune 500 company can have a great year according to their annual report, and then get hit by a series of blasts from the media about their labor practices, causing sales to plummet . Many companies dread media coverage of their nonmarket issues and have had to develop a capability for interacting with the media. The essential role the news media plays in a democracy is accompanied by a responsibility to provide information in an accurate and unbiased manner so that individuals can formulate their own conclusions about issues. News organizations face incentives, including those provided by profits, and pressures from competition among news organizations. Similarly, journalists face incentives associated with career and professional advancement. These incentives and pressures complicate the fulfillment of that responsibility. The news media itself is a diverse collection of organizations, including television, radio, internet services, blogs, newspapers, magazines, and journals, and each faces its own set of challenges. Management and journalists are different in their perspective on what constitutes who, what where and why of a story. Media companies are motivated by profit so management is concerned with the story that makes the most profit. On the other hand, And journalist are guided by professional standards and their conduct is governed by editorial control when choosing and reporting their subject matter. So whatever journalists have career interest. Editorial control govern their conduct. In the 21st century large media companies like Time Warner Cable, ABC, NBC and CBS, etc., control the media. It’s all ratings and profitability. The higher their ratings, the better the profit for the large media companies. How to cite Media, Essay examples Media Free Essays The mass media, including TV, radio, newspapers have a great influence on people and especially on the younger generation. It plays an important role in shaping the opinions and position of the younger generation. Argue for or against this statement Mass media is media which is intended for a large audience. We will write a custom essay sample on Media or any similar topic only for you Order Now It may take the form of broadcast media, as in the case of television and radio, or print media, like newspapers and magazines. Internet media can also attain mass media status, and many mass media outlets maintain a web presence to take advantage of the ready availability of Internet in many regions of the world. Media has the greatest impact on the young generation more that the family or the school has. The means of media which influence the young generation are television,radio,internet,newspapers, magazines, books, broadcasting and text publishers. We live in a society that depends on information and communication to keep moving in the right direction and do our daily activities like work, entertainment, health care, education, personal relationships, traveling and anything else that we have to do. A common person in the city usually wakes up checks the tv news or newspaper, goes to work, makes a few phone calls, eats with their family when possible and makes his decisions based on the information that he has either from their co workers, news, tv, friends, family, financial reports, etc. What we need to be aware is that most of our decisions, beliefs and values are based on what we know for a fact, our assumptions and our own experience. In our work we usually know what we have to do based on our experience and studies, however on our daily lives we rely on the media to get the current news and facts about what is important and what we should be aware of. We have put our trust on the media as an authority to give us news, entertainment and education. However, the influence of mass media on our kids, teenagers and society is so big that we should know. How to cite Media, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Objectivity in Journalism Essay Example For Students

Objectivity in Journalism Essay Merriam Webster defines objectivity as expressing or dealing with facts or conditions as perceived without distortion by personal feelings, prejudices, or interpretations. Objectivity, as defined by the school of media ethics, means standing so far from the community that you see all events and all viewpoints as equally distant and important, or unimportant for that matter. It is employed by giving equal weight to all viewpointsor, if not, giving all an interesting twist, within taste. The result is a presentation of facts in a true non-partisan manner, and then standing back to let the reader decide which view is true. By going about it this way, we are defining objectivity not by the way we go about gathering and interpreting the news, but by what we actually put in the paper. It can be measured out by allocating so many lines for this group, and so many lines for that group. To be fair, we should spread out our resources as evenly as possible. The critics get a lot to chew on when that is the definition of objectivity. One form of reaction is to say, Objectivity is impossible! No matter how we spread our resources, well never get it right. We might as well be honest, and listen to our subjective inner voices, and write and report from a neutral point of view. Some journalists who think that way will surely rely on public journalism as an excuse to paint with a biased brush. Of course it is impossible for a journalist to be completely objective because journalists are human and humans are subjective by nature. It is possible, however, for journalists to strive to be objective. A journalist may not like the Ku Klux Klan or the Fellowship of Christian Athletes but must understand the need to report about groups and organizations that have an impact on the community. Journalists have to put personal feelings and beliefs aside when dealing with the news. If the ideal of objectivity is hard to grasp, then perhaps better words are fair, impartial, neutral or balanced. It is the last concept of balance that is in practice each day for journalists. Each story a journalist writes must present the facts accurately and provide a balanced view of both sides of the issue. For example, if a journalist finds accurate information about the mayor stealing funds from the public, the mayor must be given the opportunity to respond and explain the circumstances. The notion that journalists must maintain objectivity is a relatively new concept. The early American publishers were involved in politics and helped bring about the Revolution. Thomas Paine is admired for his words on freedom for the common man, and in motivating the colonies to rebel against the British Redcoats. Thomas Paine wrote, These are the times that try mens souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands it NOW, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. I love the Internet as a journalistic platform, but I certainly see that it has as many flaws as traditional journalism. When I see the constant barrage of attacks from political partisans on the right and the left accusing journalists of being partial to the other side, If the journalists are getting attacked from both sides, it probably means they are doing a pretty good job of being fair and objective mainstream journalists. Before the Internet, the non-mainstream wasnt readily visible; we didnt have easy access to anything but the mainstream. When the Internet opened us up to a vast world of sidestream opinion and culture, it made us second-guess the mainstream media. The Internet revealed to us that the big mainstream media corporations werent really telling us thats the way it is but thats the way it is in order for certain media corporations to capture a share of the mass market. .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 , .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 .postImageUrl , .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 , .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958:hover , .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958:visited , .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958:active { border:0!important; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958:active , .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958 .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u7c330a81c14af74d9f1c4eba8a74c958:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Multicultural Essay From being on the Internet, Im probably more skeptical of everything I read, both on and off the Net. I am even more skeptical of Internet publications than I am of the mainstream. Gatekeepers arent necessarily a bad thing. Those lessons I was taught in journalism classes .

Friday, November 29, 2019

Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784) an Example by

Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784) A: The subject is the life and works of the first African American poet, Phillis Wheatley. The article focuses on the struggles of an African slave who bought and educated by her master John Wheatley. Though she wrote a book of poems entitled Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral in 1774, no publisher in America would publish it. So it could be published from London with the help of Mr.Wheatley and other influential people. Later recognition for her talent came from celebrities like Voltaire and John Paul Jones. As many doubted the ability of a black woman to write poetry, she had to appear in a court and examined by Boston luminaries including John Erving, Reverend Charles Chauncey, John Hancock, Thomas Hutchinson, the governor of Massachusetts, and his Lieutenant Governor. She passed the test successfully and was awarded a certificate. She is regarded as the first poet of African American literature. In 1778, African American poet Jupiter Hammon paid his tribute to her by writing an ode on Phillis Wheatley. It is very unfortunate that she had an incompatible mar riage and died in penury, and her second volume of poetry remained unpublished. Need essay sample on "Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784)" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed College Students Frequently Tell EssayLab professionals: I'm don't want to write my essay. Because I want to spend time with my family Professional writers propose: Your Best Essay Helper B: I think John Wheatley proved with success that given the right opportunities, black people can develop their potential in the same way as white men do. It also shows that all white are not necessarily racially biased. They truly believe in Christian virtues like kindness and charity. C: John Wheatleys racial impartiality is evident from the fact that he not only nurtured a slave girls talent, he also liberated her from the bond of slavery. The kind-hearted man also gave her his surname to improve her social status. But it is very unfortunate that her name did not appear on the stone of her grave. D: Mr.John Wheatley actually fought a silent war against slavery and racism. He did not preach it from the house top, but he made his contribution to a harmonious multicultural society. He must have been pained by what Phillis wrote in her poem, "On being brought from Africa to America": "Their color is a diabolic dye. Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain, May be refin'd, and join th' angelic train. E: The rise and fall in the life of Phyllis Wheatley shows how with hard work and sincerity, even a black woman can find her place in a white-dominated society. It also highlights how a poet with social recognition dies in poverty. People by and large do not care for sensitive souls like poets. John Wheatley stands for the liberal American who shows us how love and nurture can turn an African slave girl bought mainly for domestic work to admirable intellectual height. Though her grave remained unmarked, it is heartening to know that now a building has been named in her honor at the University of Massachusetts Boston. Her life and work, though brief, would inspire generations of new aspiring souls belonging to backward communities. Work Cited https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phillis_Wheatley 7-Dec-08

Monday, November 25, 2019

Daniel Elazar essays

Daniel Elazar essays The thesis of Daniel J. Elazars article is that the government is an ongoing transformation between centralization to decentralization. The changing forces of centralization and decentralization are unclear. Elazar supports his theory with three main arguments. The author first examines the early years of the Republic. The events of the Revolutionary War up to the New Deal was a direct result of politicians, citizens and interest groups relying upon their states as arenas to fight battles and accomplish goals. Elazar argues that the New Deal was an acknowledgment that decentralization had its weaknesses. Centralization through federal programs during the New Deal counteracted the effects of the Great Oppression. The Nations economic system became centralized as national corporations purchased locally owned firms. Federal intervention became apparent in the legal and educational systems. Also the development and advancement of mass communication led to a total focus on Washington D.C. as the center of power. Elazar argues that states act as fail safe mechanisms and polities. Through the Nixon administration, the states acted when one part of the political system could not. The states organized the distribution of limited oil and gas resources. Governors and state agencies settled strikes and the resettling of Asian refugees. States discovered that they had power that came from being states and they did not need to wait for federal initiatives to act. State Supreme Courts began to build state constitutional foundations for public policy. Ronald Reagan attempted to implement policies that reversed government power to the states. By shifting government priorities, reorganizing grant programs, and reducing federal domestic expenditures as a proportion of the total federal budget, it established new attitudes among state governments. States learned that it no longer needed to turn to the federal government f...

Friday, November 22, 2019

River Woods Case Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

River Woods Case - Assignment Example Once a horizontal powerbase is established, the employees will feel more inclined to work as a team and less inclined to go directly to the CEO, as would occur in a vertical power base. In order to assist in establishing a horizontal structure as quickly as possible, I plan to be a flexible and visible as I can, while setting clear expectations that all employees buy into and feel empowered by. In terms of weekly meetings, each employee needs to understand their role and what’s expected and single person has all of determinants or information. Clear communication channels will be established which include my office as the first stop for any new ideas or if employees are having problems. I plan to become more relevant to my employees by increasing the amount on which I rely on the concept of centrality or in other words, my network. As part of this strategy, I will be ad I will encourage my employees to display certificates for courses they completed and I will begin to show them my close relationship with the CEO to establish trustworthiness by demonstrating that I am indeed, close to the powerbase. This should help ease the problems and drive productivity up as everyone will feel more confident. The short answer is that the key to getting my management team on board with me is trickle up leadership and in order to â€Å"lead up†, it is time for me to speak up. My team needs to be refocused and the artificial constraints and excuses for the rise in customer complaints needs to be ended by renewing their dedication to the specialized role that them and their units play in this special company. I must act assertively to neutralize those individuals in my company who are having a toxic effect by being late or having attendance issues. This is an opportunity for employees to have input and take the lead in solving the issues and I will certainly be open and encouraging of any viable solutions

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Nursing and Human Resource Sector of the Health Care Industry Assignment

Nursing and Human Resource Sector of the Health Care Industry - Assignment Example The present research has identified that there is a rising cost of providing healthcare to over 230,000 individuals, a task that is making hard for the health care system to retain and attract employers who are discouraged by the premium costs. The employers are facing the effect of having to reduce or absolutely not offering any health care benefits to the employees. The Mercy Health plans are also finding it very difficult to get a local health plan for the employers. There is also the issue of competitors who offer national health plans and worse, they have a large share of the market. As such, the mercy health plan has to strategize themselves so as to face the existing competition in the market. Among the solutions considered by the Mercy Health Plans in the face of the problem of attracting employers into their health plans, they have decided to attract employers through offering them more attractive health plans that apply to the long-term relationship they have with their emp loyee. They encourage the senior management teams of the employers to take up their health plans in order to solve this problem. This is in opposition to the selection of short-term health care plans by the senior management. This is because the short-term health plans tend to be a source of cost shifting solution to the employer and mostly offered by consumer-directed programs for health benefits. Further, the mercy health plan realizes that they have to design a health program that would cover the overall health of the entire population. This includes the consumers that do not have a high risk of healthcare complications and their probabilities of getting sick is also low. As such, it is possible that the Mercy Health plan can reduce the cost of health and attract more employers.

Monday, November 18, 2019

Contemporary Study of the Impact of Standardization and Harmonization Dissertation

Contemporary Study of the Impact of Standardization and Harmonization of Accounting Standards - Dissertation Example However, the existence of dissimilar accounting practices can be a crucial challenge linked with the aforesaid procedure. In this similar context, ethical dilemma plays an imperative part in harmonising along with standardising the accounting standards as it concerns certain significant moral values that include honesty, reliability, durability and integrity among others. From research methodological viewpoint, both quantitative as well as qualitative research approaches have been taken into concern. Moreover, valuable data associated with this research study has been collected through the execution of structured interviews in the form of questionnaires that has been administered to the officials of the companies following different accounting standards like IASB and IFRS among others. Besides, hypothesis testing by utilising a statistical tool of correlation as a form of meta-analysis has also been considered for this particular research study. Table of Contents Abstract 2 Chapter 1 : Introduction 5 1.1Background 5 1.2Research Problems 6 1.3Research Aims and Objectives 7 1.4Methodological Overview 8 Chapter 2: Literature Review 10 2.1 Importance of Standardization and Harmonization of Accounting Standards 10 2.2 Advantages of Standardization and Harmonization of the Accounting Standards 12 2.3 Challenges of Standardization and Harmonization of the Accounting Standards 14 2.4 Role of Ethical Dilemma in Standardization and Harmonization of the Accounting Standards 15 2.5 External Influencing Factors to Support or To Oppose the Benefits of Standardization and Harmonization 17 Chapter 3: Research Methodology 19 3.1 Research Design 19 3.2 Data Collection and Evaluation 22 3.3 Ethical Consideration 24 Chapter 4: Findings 25 4.1. Benefit of Standardisation and Harmonisation to Its Users 25 4.2 Benefits Accordingly Achieved by Companies in the Recent Phenomenon 26 4.3. Role of Ethical Dilemma in Obtaining the Benefits from Standardisation and Harmonisation 29 4.4. Exte rnal Influencing Factors to Support or To Oppose the Benefits of Standardization and Harmonization 30 4.5 Hypothesis Testing 37 Chapter 5: Discussion 40 5.1. Reasons or Motivations behind Standardisation and Harmonisation of the Accounting Standards 40 5.2. Advantages and Challenges of Standardization and Harmonization of the Accounting Standards 43 Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations 49 References 53 Bibliography 61 Appendix 64 Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Background The perception of standardisation is fundamentally described as the process of creating uniform business methods throughout different locations or divisions. This particular concept tends to diminish the jeopardy of failure by consistently complying with the business related operational expenditures as well as the performance based objectives (Richen & Steinhorst, 2005). Relatively, the conception of harmonisation is commonly described as the adjustment of the inconsistencies or the differences prevailing amid var ious business policy standards, procedures, specifications and protocols (NSCA, n.d.). Contextually, the Accounting Standards (ASs) are primarily recognised as the specific guidelines which are duly authorised by the skilled professionals relating to any accounting, regulatory or government body. The ASs comprises the significant